The following journal papers relate directly to Lake Ohrid. Summaries and links are below each slide.
Probably the most thorough overview of current threats to Lake Ohrid comes from Kostoski et al in Biogeosciences, who analyze almost every conceivable impact from climate change and road-building in the watershed to the disturbance of spawning grounds by speed-boats. Of 26 specified dangers, 11 receive the highest level of concern, including five related to urbanization and the tourism industry. Thankfully, the paper also has some ideas on how to cut back the damage, most excitingly, underwater protection zones!
How will climate change affect Lake Ohrid? According to Matzinger et al in Limnology and Oceanography, warming global temperatures will worsen the effects of nutrients entering Lake Ohrid, resulting in extreme oxygen depletion. The answer is to reduce phosphorous inputs by about 50%. Protected wetlands and a renewed wastewater system would surely have to be included in the plan.
To 2009, 67 fish species had been identified at the sibling lakes of Ohrid, Prespa and Skhodra/Skadar. Here Talevski et al produce the definitive fish list, revealing not only which taxa are shared or specific to only one lake, but also which are native and introduced. Data for Lake Ohrid places the rate of world unique species at 33%, although non-natives are also running high at 25%.
Lake Ohrid may have unnaturally aged by thousands of years due to the eutrophication pressure from humans, claim Avramoski et al in a 2003 project evaluation brief. Meanwhile, shifts in the composition of species are already evident, as is damage to the shallow waters. How can we stop the rot? Coordinated action plans between Albania, Macedonia and Greece; policy and legislative reform; public and stakeholder involvement; administrative training; and improved research and monitoring. Investors for sustainable development also need to be attracted by success stories.